No time right now?
New programming languages are becoming more and more important. Some of them are growing at high speed and are also appearing more and more frequently in job advertisements. Depending on whether you develop for the web, backend or smartphones – there are new programming languages almost everywhere that you should take a closer look at.
You should learn these programming languages in 2021
Web development: TypeScript
Python for data science and automation
Although Python has a few more years under its belt and dates back to the 1990s, the language, which relies on a tight programming style, is growing steadily and this year has once again established itself as the second most popular language, ahead of Java. In the Stackoverflow list of the Most Wanted Programming Languages, Python even took the top spot in 2021. A big advantage of Python is the platform independence: It runs on almost all operating systems. You can use it to program object-oriented or procedurally. In areas like data science, machine learning and artificial intelligence, you can’t avoid Python. Overall, however, the language can be used almost universally. With the appropriate tools, user interfaces are even possible. Python is also easy to learn and has many libraries.
Android: Kotlin is incredibly popular
In May 2017, Google declared Kotlin to be the official Android programming language alongside Java. Since then, the language from the Jetbrains house has apparently grown inexorably. The language is incredibly popular and continues to be # 4 of the fastest growing programming languages on GitHub. It has many advantages over Java and makes switching from applications with Java Codebase easy. Thanks to the interoperability, you can rewrite your project bit by bit in Kotlin.
Why Kotlin instead of Java? Kotlin is only a few years old and therefore has many modern features on board that have only gradually been added to Java, more badly than right. Due to the zero security, very simple syntax for Lambda functions and language constructs, which significantly reduce the code compared to Java, Kotlin is definitely one of the must-haves for Android. Anyone writing a new project should rely on Kotlin if possible. Also because Jetbrains is working on features for multi-platform projects with Kotlin. So you can write native apps for Android and iOS.
iOS: Swift instead of Objective-C
If you’re still developing iOS apps with Objective-C, it’s time to learn Swift. The language was introduced in 2014 and is considered a modern alternative to Objective-C for iOS and macOS. It has many similarities to Kotlin and at least as many advantages over Objective-C as Jetbrains’ language has over Java. Swift makes it much easier to develop apps for iPhones and Co., which is why Apple developers should have looked at the language more closely since 2014. If you still haven’t done that, you should definitely write “Learn Swift” on your list of resolutions for 2021.
Go from Google for cloud computing
The open source programming language Go was developed by Google out of dissatisfaction with Java and C ++. It is particularly relevant for cloud computing. The focus of Go is clearly on efficiency and productive development. In order not to endanger existing code, Go should remain compatible with the first version in later versions. Those who master Go can save time, but familiarization is quite time-consuming and tedious.
Rust: Reliable, performant and productive
These are the words Mozilla uses to advertise its Rust programming language, which was announced in 2010. In 2021, Rust continues to top the list of the most popular programming languages, a long way from the second most popular language, TypeScript. Rust relies on static typing and wants to prevent null pointer and stack overflow errors as far as possible at runtime. Rust positions itself between low-level languages like C and higher languages like Java. By combining different programming paradigms, the programming language allows a high level of abstraction and relies on a typing system that is common for functional languages instead of a garbage collector for memory management. The language can be used for CLI tools, web assembly and network services, among other things.
Rust is an alternative for C and C ++ that aims to eliminate many dangers and errors at runtime. Since Rust is still relatively young, tools and libraries are still lacking in some places. However, with the announcement by AWS that it intends to become more involved in the further development of the increasingly popular programming language in the future, this could change soon.
Read more on the topic: Why are Kotlin, TypeScript and Rust so trendy? The tendency is towards more control and fewer errors.
This article dates back to 2018 and was updated on December 10, 2020. The author of the revision is Kathrin Stoll.